Workshop on Law & Linguistics, Georgia State University, October 18, 2019
Interested participants can register for individual paper sessions if they cannot attend the entire workshop.
Participants are encouraged to read the paper in advance for any session they attend.
Breakfast and Lunch limited to registered participants and subject to capacity
Remote observation and participation will be enabled via webex
Registration requested to attend in person or for webex joining instructions:
-- Five workshop papers available for download

Brigham Young University (BYU) Law School Corpus Websites
(free access, but all require registration using Gmail or Google account)
Corpus of Founding Era American English
Farrand’s Records (Records of the Federal Constitutional Convention of 1787)
Elliots Debates ( Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution)
Statutes at Large (laws passed by the United States Congress in chronological order -- currently includes the first five Congresses)
Caselaw Access Project (currently includes state cases from 1760 to 1799)
Corpus of Early Modern English
Corpus of the United States Supreme Court

BYU Law’s Law & Corpus Linguistics Project
-- BYU Law Review, Vol 2017, Issue 6 (Special Issue on Law & Corpus Linguistics)
----Table of Contents
----Digital Commons archive of articles
--Call for Papers: The Fifth Annual Law & Corpus Linguistics Conference (Brigham Young University   Feb 6-7, 2020) Deadline: October 1, 2019

Clark D. Cunningham, "Teaching lawyers about using corpus lingustics"(ppt) (Slides as pdf) (Presented September 21, 2018, 14th American Association for Corpus Linguistics Conference)

Seminar on Judicial Power, Georgia State University College of Law
-- Meredith Hobbs, Big Data Meets the Constitution in New Originalism Project: Georgia appellate judges evaluate cutting-edge inquiries
into what the Constitution's framers meant from Georgia State University law students ( Report, May 1, 2018)
-- Students Present New Insights on Original Meaning of Constitution to Judges using “Big Data” of Corpus Linguistics (GSU College of Law News, May 21, 2018)("It’s revolutionary,” Chief Judge Stephen Dillard of the Georgia Court of Appeals said of Georgia State Law students’ linguistic and historical research)
-- Fall 2019 Course website (taught by Clark Cunningham)

The original meaning of "cases" in Article III of the US Constitution
Haoshan Ren, Margaret Wood, Clark D. Cunningham, Noor Abbady, Ute Römer, Heather Kuhn & Jesse Egbert, “Questions Involving National Peace and Harmony” or “Injured Plaintiff Litigation”? The Original Meaning of “Cases” in Article III of the Constitution, 36 Georgia State Law Review (forthcoming 2020)
Presented Friday, October 18, 2019 Georgia State University Workshop on Law & Linguistics
Published on the Social Science Research Network: For those without access to SSRN, the article can also be downloaded by clicking here.

William Andrew Wright v. Stephen Spaulding, Warden (on appeal from N.D. Ohio) (6th Cir. Case 17-4257) (Judges Amul R. Thapar, Joseph Martin Hood & Eugene Edward Siler)
Letter from the court to lawyers for the parties requesting supplemental briefs on original meaning of the Article III Cases or Controversies requirement
(May 28, 2019) (asking "How does the corpus help inform that determination? See").
Respondent's Motion to extend time (June 4, 2019)
Appearance of Joshua K. Handell, US Dept of Justice, for Respondent (June 5, 2019)
Order granting motion to extend time until July 18, 2019, for parties to file supplemental briefs (June 6, 2019)
Petitioner's Supplemental Brief (July 18, 2019)
Respondent's Supplemental Brief (July 18, 2019)
Amicus appearance filed for Law & Linguistics Research Team (July 25, 2019)
Motion to file amicus brief (July 25, 2019)
Amicus brief filed by Law & Linguistics Research Team (July 25, 2019)
-- Excerpt of 35 cases of the phrase "such other + noun" taken from a random sample search of the Corpus of Founding Era American English. (These cases represent all the examples from the random sample drawn from either Founders Online or Evans Early Imprint. These sources were selected for the excerpt because of the ease of viewing the full text through the URL provided in each line.)
Order granting motion to file amicus brief and directing the amici to file a further supplemental brief no later than August 15, 2019 (August 2, 2019)
Supplemental amicus brief filed by Law & Linguistics Research Team (August 22, 2019)
Decision (September 19, 2019) (Opinion by Judge Amul R. Thapar for the court affirming denial of habeas petition ) ("We asked the parties to file supplemental briefs on the original meaning of Article III’s case-or-controversy requirement, specifically whether the corpus of Founding-era American English helped illuminate that meaning. A team of corpus linguistics researchers submitted two amicus briefs as well. We are grateful to both the parties and the amici for their hard work. Here, we agree with the parties that corpus linguistics turned out not to be the most helpful tool in the toolkit.)

-Results of linguistic research and other materials cited in amicus briefs of the Law & Linguistics Research Team
-- Excerpt of 35 cases of the phrase "such other + noun" taken from a random sample search of the Corpus of Founding Era American English. (These cases represent all the examples from the random sample drawn from either Founders Online or Evans Early Imprint. These sources were selected for the excerpt because of the ease of viewing the full text through the URL provided in each line.)
-- Additional random sample search results for "such other + noun". Examples where the relationship between nouns in the "such other" pattern may be difficult to discern are highlighted and annotated
---- Analysis of additional random samples
---- Random Sample A (100 examples)
-----Random Sample B (100 examples)
-----Random Sample C (100 examples)
--- Tables showing high frequency patterns for using "case" and "cases" in the papers of James Madison
--- Examples of "cases" used as shell noun in Madison papers
--"cases arising" and "cases affecting" phrases found in COFEA excluding references to Article III
-- "cases of" phrases found in COFEA
---- Excluded examples from Hein Online
---- Randomized spreadsheet of 335 remaining examples
-----Random Sample 1
-----Random Sample 2
---- Random Sample 3

Articles of Confederation - case highlighted
Virginia Constitution of 1776 - case highlighted
Massachusetts Constitution of 1780 - case highlighted

Image of Madison's Notes, Constitutional Convention (Madison's objection to adding "cases arising under the constitution")

The original meaning of "emolument" in the US Constitution
-- This page includes the appendix to Using Empirical Data to Investigate the Original Meaning of “Emolument” in the Constitution, 36 Georgia State Law Review       (forthcoming January 2020), also published on the Social Science Research Network at:

Cases using or discussing corpus-based linguistic analysis

In the Matter of the Adoption of Baby E.Z., 266 P.3d 702, 715-32 (Utah 2011) (Justice Thomas Rex Lee, concurring)
State v. Rasabout, 356 P.3d 1258, 1271-90 (Utah 2015) (Associate Chief Justice Thomas Rex Lee, concurring)
People v. Harris, 885 N.W.2d 832 (Mich. 2016) (Opinion for the court by Justice Brian K. Zahra) (Justice Stephen J. Markman, concurring) (both opinions use data from the Corpus of Contemporary American English, but come to opposite conclusions as to whether statute prohibiting admission of "information" provided by a law enforcement officer under threat of employment sanction applied to providing false information)
Fire Ins. Exch. v. Oltmanns, 416 P.3d 1148, 1163 n.9 (Utah 2018) (Justice Christine M. Durham, concurring)
Carpenter v. United States, 138 S.Ct. 2206, 2235, 2238-39 (2018) (Justice Clarence Thomas, J. dissenting)

Wilson v Safelite Group, Inc., Case No. 18-3408 (6th Cir. July 10, 2019)
-- Concurring opinion by Judge Amul R. Thapur, slip op. 13-22 ("corpus linguistics is a powerful tool for discerning how the public would have understood a statute's text at the time it was enacted")
-- Concurring opinion by Judge Jane B. Stranch, slip op. 23-26 ("the use of corpus linguistics is a difficult and complex exercise ... I would leave this task to qualified experts, not to untrained judges and lawyers. See, e.g., Brief for Professor Clark D. Cunningham, et al. as Amicus Curiae on Behalf of Neither Party, In Re: Donald J. Trump, President of the United States of America, No. 18-2486 (4th Cir. Jan. 29, 2019) (discussing use of corpus linguistics by professor of applied linguistics to help determine the meaning of "emoluments" during the founding era).” )

Caesars Entertainment Corp. v. Int'l Union of Operating Engineers, Case No. 18 2465, slip op. at 7-8 (3rd Cir. Aug 1, 2019) (using data from Corpus of Historical American English regarding use of "previously") (Opinion for the court by Judge Thomas Hardiman)
State of Idaho v. Lantis, Docket No. 46171 (Supreme Court of Idaho Aug. 23, 2019) (Opinion for the court by Justice G. Richard Bevan) (using data from Corpus of Historical American English regarding use of "disturbing the peace" in 1887)
Richards v. Cox, 2019 UT 57, slip op. at 8-11 (Supreme Court of Utah  September 13, 2019) (using Corpus of Contemporary English and Corpus of Historical American English  to investigate meaning of “employment” in Utah Constitution), slip op. 19, 19-20 (Opinion for an unanimous court by Justice Constandinos  Himonas)(Concurring opinion by Justice Thomas Rex Lee approving use of corpus linguistics)

Articles by Clark Cunningham on law and linguistics

"A Linguistic Analysis of the Meanings of 'Search' in the Fourth Amendment: A Search for Common Sense," 73 Iowa Law Review 541-609 (1988).
"Plain Meaning and Hard Cases," 103 Yale Law Journal 1561-1625 (1994) (with Judith N. Levi, Georgia M. Green, and Jeffrey P. Kaplan) (cited 114 S.Ct. 1259, 1264; 114 S.Ct. 1793, 1806; 114 S.Ct. 2251, 2255)
-- Marcia Coyle, High Court Relies on Linguistic Sleuths in Case (National Law Journal April 11, 1994)
-- Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg: "If law journal citations in Supreme Court opinions are less numerous than they once were, it may be because some in the academy are writing on topics or in a language ordinary judges and lawyers do not comprehend. But articles accessible and useful to judges remain in vogue. Last Term, for example, a Yale Law Journal article sensibly discussing "Plain Meaning and Hard Cases" received credit lines in three Supreme Court opinions (two of them mine)." Communicating and Commenting on the Court's Work, 83 Georgetown Law Journal 2119, 2127 (1995)
Introduction: Northwestern University-Washington University Law and Linguistics Conference, 73 Washington University Law Quarterly 785-798 (1995)
"Bringing Linguistics into Judicial Decisionmaking," 2 Forensic Linguistics: The International Journal of Speech, Language, and the Law 81-98 (1995) (with Jeffrey P. Kaplan, Georgia M. Green, and Judith N. Levi) (1995)
"Using Common Sense: A Linguistic Perspective on Judicial Interpretations of 'Use a Firearm'," 73 Washington University Law Quarterly. 1159-1214 (1995) (with Charles J. Fillmore)

Articles on Law and Corpus Linguistics

Stephanie H. Barclay, Brady Early & Annika Boone, Original Meaning and the Establishment Clause, 61 Ariz. L. Rev. ___ (forthcoming 2019) (
Barton Beebe & Jeanne C. Fromer, Are We Running Out of Trademarks? An Empirical Study of Trademark Depletion and Congestion, 131 Harv. L.Rev. 945 (2018)
Jacob Crump, Corpus Linguistics in the Chevron Two-Step, 2018 BYU L.Rev. 399 (2018)
Edward Finegan, Comments on James C. Phillips & Jesse Egbert, Advancing Law & Corpus Linguistics , 2017 BYU L.Rev. 1297 (2017)
Neal Goldfarb, A Lawyer's Introduction to Meaning in the Framework of Corpus Linguistics, 2017 BYU L.Rev. 1359 (2018)
Stefan Th. Gries & Brian Slocum, Ordinary Meaning and Corpus Linguistics, 2017 BYU L.Rev. 1417 (2017)
James A. Heilpern, Temporary Officers, 26 Geo. Mason L.Rev. No. 3 (forthcoming 2019) (
Carissa Bryne Hessick, Corpus Linguistics and the Criminal Law, 2017 BYU L.Rev. 1503 (2017)
Thomas R. Lee & Stephen C. Mouritsen, Judging Ordinary Meaning, 127 Yale L.J. 788 (2018)
Thomas R. Lee & James C. Phillips, Data-Driven Originalism, 167 U. Pa. L.Rev. 261 (2019)
Jake Linford, Datamining the Meaning(s) of Progress, 2017 BYU L. Rev. 1531 (2018)
Jennifer L. Mascott, Who are "Officers of the United States"?, 70 Stan. L.Rev. 443 (2018)
Jennifer L. Mascott, The Dictionary as Specialized Corpus, 2017 BYU L. Rev. 1557 (2018)
Stephen C. Mouritsen, The Dictionary is Not a Fortress: Definitional Fallacies and a Corpus-Based Approach to Plain Meaning, 2010 BYU L.Rev. 1915 (2010)
Stephen C. Mouritsen, Hard Cases and Hard Data: Assessing Corpus Linguistics as an Empirical Path to Plain Meaning, 13 Col. Sci. & Tech. L.Rev. 156 (2012)
Stephen C. Mouritsen, Corpus Linguistics in Legal Interpretation: An Evolving Interpretive Framework, 6 Int'l J. Lang. & Law 67 (2017)
Stephen C. Mouritsen, Contract Interpretation with Corpus Linguistics, 94 Wash. L. Rev. (forthcoming 2019)
Daniel Ortner, The Merciful Corpus: The Rule of Lenity, Ambiguity and Corpus Linguistics, 25 B.U. Pub. Int. L.J. 101 (2016)
James C. Phillips, Daniel M. Ortner & Thomas R. Lee, Corpus Linguistics & Original Public Meaning: A New Tool to Make Originalism More Empirical, 126 Yale L.J.F. 20 (2016)
James Cleith Phillips & Sara White, The Meaning of the Three Emolument Clauses in the U.S. Constitution: A Corpus-Linguistic Analysis of American English from 1760-1799, 59 S.Tex.L.Rev. 181 (2017)
James C. Phillips & Jesse Egbert, Advancing Law and Corpus Linguistics: Importing Principles and Practices from Survey and Content-Analysis Methodologies to Improve Corpus Design and Analysis, 2017 BYU L.Rev. 1589 (2017)
James C. Phillips, Benjamin Lee & Jacob Crump, Corpus Linguistics and “Officers of the United States”, 42 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 871 (2019)
John D. Ramer, Corpus Linguistics: Misfire or More Ammo for the Ordinary-Meaning Canon?, 116 Mich. L.Rev.303 (2017)
Lawrence M. Solan, Can Corpus Linguistics Help Make Originalism Scientific?, 126 Yale L.J.F. 57 (2016)
Lawrence M. Solan, Patterns in Language and Law, 6 Int'l J. Lang. & Law 46 (2017)
Lawrence M. Solan and Tammy Gales, Corpus Linguistics as a Tool in Legal Interpretation, 2017 BYU L. Rev. 1311 (2018).
Lawrence B. Solum, Triangulating Public Meaning: Corpus Linguistics, Immersion, and the Constitutional Record, 2017 BYU L.Rev. 1621 (2018) (
Lee J. Strang, How Big Data Can Increase Originalism's Methodological Rigor: Using Corpus Linguistics to Reveal Original Language Conventions, 50 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 1181 (2017)
Lee J. Strang, The Original Meaning of Religion in the First Amendment: A Test Case of Originalism's Utilization of Corpus Linguistics, 2017 BYU L.Rev. 1683 (2017)
Kevin P. Tobia, Testing Ordinary Meaning: An Experimental Assessment of What Dictionary Definitions and Linguistic Usage Data Tell Legal Interpreters, 133 Harv. L. Rev (forthcoming 2020)
--- Data Appendix

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